28/05/2011 13:45
1. Information Gathering / Foot printing
 2. Port Scanning
 3. OS Fingerprinting
 4. Banner Grabbing
 5. Vulnerability Assessment
 6. Search & Build Exploit
 7. Attack
 8. Maintain Access with help of Root kits and Trojans.
 9. Covering Tracks
1. Information Gathering / Foot printing
Information gathering is the process to get maximum details of target host. It is a very important
part of remote hacking because the more information about target system we have, more the number of
attacks we can launch.
Information gathering is done with these steps:
1. Find our company URL / IP address
2. Google for more information from different websites
3. Foot printing Through Job Sites
4. Find out who is record of target domain name (open )
5. Find out physical location of victim (open
Case-Study: 1.1

You are working in your company as a hacker, and your company wants physical address , ip
address, employee record and domain details. Your company gives u domain name:


1. open Dos prompt and type ping [Enter] after that you will get ip address of the victim.
2. open and search (and browse website for all informations like contact
number, employee records and their services)
3. for domain owner email address and hosting company details , open:
And type (any target site).
4. for physical location of server, open and type ip address that you
get in step 1. and trace it after that.

2. Port Scanning
What is port?
Port is medium for communication between 2 computers. Every service on a host is identified by
a unique 16-bit number called a port.
Some default ports:
Port number Service
7 Ping
21 FTP(File transfer protocol)
22 SSH (Secure shell)
23 Telnet
25 SMTP (Mail)
53 DNS
110 POP3 (Mail Access)
513 Rlogin
8080 Proxy
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol) are two of the
protocols that make up the TCP/IP protocol suite which is used universally to communicate on
the Internet. Each of these has ports 0 through 65535 available ,so essentially there are more than
65,000 doors to lock.
The first 1024 TCP ports are called the Well-Known Ports and are associated with standard
services such as FTP, HTTP, SMTP or DNS.
What is port scanning?
It is similar to a thief going through your neighborhood and checking every door and window on
each house to see which ones are open and which ones are locked.
What is port scanner?
A port scanner is a piece of software designed to search a network host for open ports. This is often used
by administrators to check the security of their networks and by hackers to identify running services on a
host with the view to compromising it. To portscan a host is to scan for listening ports on a single target
host. To portsweep is to scan multiple hosts for a specific listening port.
Best port scanners: nmap, Hping2, Superscan.
Download link:
Why we perform port scanning?

We perform port scanning for finding our open services, so after we can search exploits related to that
service and application.

NMAP (Port Scanner): A Hacker’s Best Friend
Nmap is a tool that has the ability to detect hosts, scanning ports and Oss. Nmap is used in matrix, sword
and many hacking movies.
Nmap Modes of operation:
TCP PING: -PT: This method of pinging sends a TCP packet to the host with an ACK flag. If the host
replies with an RST, then the host is UP (running).
ICMP Ping: -PI: This is standard ping used by UNIX / Linux boxes.
Connect():-ST: All Linux/Unix systems provide a system call to connect to a machine on a specified
port, with a given protocol.
SYN Stealth: -sS: This is stealth scan in that it does not get logged.
How to Find Out Own computer Ports:
Open Dos prompt and type following command.
C:\> netstat –no
After Show active connections:
Active Connections
Proto Local Address Foreign Address State PID
PID is Process ID ,
We can find out their associate application with help of following command:
C:\> tasklist
To terminate 2020 PID or another process
C:\> taskkill /PID 2020

After All connections will be close on our system.
NOTE: We can know that our system is infected or not with help of former commands, described.
3. OS Fingerprinting
OS (Operating System) Fingerprinting is a process to find out victim's Operating
System(Windows, Linux, UNIX)
When exploring a network for security auditing or inventory/administration, you usually want to
know more than the bare IP addresses of identified machines. Your reaction to discovering a
printer may be very different than to finding a router, wireless access point, telephone PBX,
game console, Windows desktop, or Unix server. Finer grained detection (such as distinguishing
Mac OS X 10.4 from 10.3) is useful for determining vulnerability to specific flaws and for
tailoring effective exploits for those vulnerabilities.
Tools: nmap, NetScanTools Pro, P0f.
4. Banner Grabbing
Banner grabbing is an attack designed to deduce the brand and/or version of an operating system
or application. Mean after port scanning we found open port 80 (apache) and target os is Linux,
but we don’t know what is version of apache for remote hacking. Like apache 2.0, 2.2, or 2.6 .
Example: c:\> telnet 80 [Enter]
Change Target Port 80 to another.
5. Vulnerability Assessment
What is Vulnerability Assessment?
the word "vulnerability" describes a problem (such as a programming bug or common
misconfiguration) that allows a system to be attacked or broken into.
A vulnerability assessment is the process of identifying, quantifying, and prioritizing (or
ranking) the vulnerabilities in a system.
Vulnerability assessments can be conducted for small businesses to large regional infrastructures.
Vulnerability from the perspective of Disaster Management means assessing the threats from
potential hazards to the population and to the infrastructure developed in that particular region. It can be
done in political, social, economic and in environmental fields.
Assessments are typically performed according to the following steps:
1. Cataloging assets and capabilities (resources) in a system.
2. Assigning quantifiable value (or at least rank order) and importance to those resources
3. Identifying the vulnerabilities or potential threats to each resource
4. Mitigating or eliminating the most serious vulnerabilities for the most valuable resources
Automated Tools: Nessus, Nikto, Core impact, Retina, etc
6. Search & Build Exploit
Manual Method: We can find vulnerability manually with help of vulnerability archive sites like and
For exploit and final attack, open the websites say Microsoft, adobe or mozilla which provides
you the source code format. You need to download the code and compile them for preparing
exploit for final attack.
7. Attack
Launch attack on remote system and get reverse shell.
8. Maintain Access
After getting remote access we place a root kit or Trojan virus for future remote access, without
any password.
[Read next chapter for more information]
9. Covering Tracks
Covering Tracks is a process to delete all logs on the remote system. If target system is linux or
UNIX, delete all entries of /var folder and if it is windows os delete all events and logs.

You are working in abc company as a ethical hacker and your company get a contract from
government to hack terrorist organization server for getting all their emails.
Ans) 1st we perform Information gathering (like collect all information like IP address and
physical address). 2nd we perform port scanning to find open ports: 22, 25, 80. And then perform
OS fingerprinting with help of nmap and p0f and if result is “Linux 2.6” then next perform
banner grabbing on port no: 25 (related to email server) in which command is used :

c:\> telnet 80
Result is : HTTP 1.1 400 BAD REQUEST
Server: Apache 2.0 Linux
So after we perform manual vulnerability assessment manually with help of
and search “Apache 2.0”  then after download exploit code compile the exploit code and
attack then take all email backup from remote system.
Project DONE!